The Harappan Culture

* It is a Bronze Age civilization.

* The Indus or the Harappan culture is older than the Chalcolithic cultures of the Indian subcontinent.

* It arose in the north-western part of the Indian subcontinent.

* Many sites in Sindh formed the central zone of the pre-Harappan culture. This culture developed and matured into an urban civilization which emerged in Sindh and Punjab.

* The Harappan culture covered parts of Punjab, Haryana, Sindh, Baluchistan, Gujarat, Rajasthan and the fringes of western Uttar Pradesh. No other cultural zone in the third and second millennium B.C in the world was as large as Harappan.

* Makran coast is in Baluchistan.

* Bhagwanpura site lies on the banks of the Hakra-Ghaggar canal.

* The important cities belonging to the mature phase are
• Harappa is on the banks of the river Ravi in Punjab province, Pakistan.
• Mohenjo-daro(literally the mound of the dead) is on the banks of river Indus in Sindh province, Pakistan.
• Chanhu-daro is at about 130km south of Mohenjo-daro in Sindh, Pakistan.
• Lothal in Gujarat is at the head of the Gulf of Cambay.
• Kalibangan(which means black bangles) is in northern Rajasthan. It saw two cultural phases, pre-Harappan and Harappan.
• Banawali is situated in Hissar district in Haryana. It also saw two cultural phases, pre-Harappan and Harappan.
• Sutkagendor and Surkotada
• Dholavira in Kutch, Gujarat and Rakhigarhi on the banks of Ghaggar in Haryana. In these sites all three phases of Harappan culture are found.

* The later Harappan phase is found in Rangpur and Rojdi in the Kathiawar Peninsula in Gujarat.

* Dholavira is a fortified settlement.

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